Zehneria.

Zehneria Endl.
Zehneria Endl., Prodr. Fl. Norfolk. 69. 1833. Type: Zehneria baueriana, F. Bauer, Illustr. pl. Norfolk, t. 181.
Pilogyne Eckl. ex Schrad., Index Sem. Hort. Gött. 1835: 5. 1835.
Neoachmandra W. J. de Wilde & Duyfjes, Blumea 51(1): 12. 2006.
Anangia W. J. de Wilde & Duyfjes, Reinwardtia 12(3): 219. 2006.

Annual or perennial, herbaceous climbers or trailers with dioecious or monoecious sexual system, which can grow up to 10 m long. Their root is often tuberous, the leaves are simple, petiolate and triangular to ovate in shape, entire to three- or five-lobed, rarely 5-foliolate. The tendrils are simple, the probract is linear, minute, caducous or absent. The small flowers are mostly unisexual (as it is the rule in cucurbits) but in one species, Z. hermaphrodita, bisexual flowers have been found. The male flowers grow solitary or in groups of two to eight per node, rarely in pedunculate, crowded racemes. The female flowers are produced solitary or in small groups in the leaf axils. In monoecious species, the female flowers are coaxillary with male racemes or produced in mixed racemes with flowers of both sexes. The five sepals are minute, triangular to narrowly elliptic, in one species, Z. macrosepala, much longer than the petals. The five petals are free, white or cream-coloured. The three to five stamens are inserted near the base or in the upper half of the corolla tube on free, slender filaments. The anthers are all monothecous or bithecous with straight, lateral or curved to sinuate thecae, which are often fringed with hairs. The pollen is small to medium-sized (polar axis 28-73 µm, equatorial axis 29-73 µm), tricolporate, (micro)reticulate or rarely micro-reticulate-perforate (Khunwasi 1998, van der Ham & Pruesapan 2006). The ovary is globose to ellipsoid, the stigma trilobed or the style triparted with bilobed stigmas and ± hairy. The fruit is a usually small pulpy berry, which grows solitary or in fascicles on a short pedicel. Fruit shape is globose to ellipsoid or fusiform, with pitted pericarp. The green, white, pale yellowish, orange, red or blackish fruits are usually less than 1 cm long but can reach up to 7 cm in some species, ripening. The relatively few seeds are compressed (rarely globose) and ovate to elliptic in outline. The testa is pale, smooth, glabrous or sometimes hairy with a narrow or indistinct margin.

The genus comprises about 75 species in tropical and subtropical Africa, five endemic in Madagascar, the rest from India and China to Northern Australia and the Pacific Islands, where they grow on disturbed ground, along forest margins and in clearings, scrubland, grassland, on riverbanks, and in mangroves.

Accepted species

Zehneria angolensis Hook.f., Fl. Trop. Afr. 2: 559. 1871.
Zehneria anomala C. Jeffrey, Kew Bull. 15: 364. 1962.
Zehneria backeri (W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes) H.Schaef. & S.S. Renner, Taxon 60: 135. 2011.
Zehneria baueriana Endl., Prodr. Fl. Norfolk. 69. 1833.
Zehneria bodinieri (H.Lé.) W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes, Thai Forest Bull. 32: 17. 2004.
Zehneria boholensis (Merr.) M.D.Dwivedi, A.K.Pandey & H.Schaef., Taxon 67: 62. 2018.
Zehneria brevirostris W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes, Thai Forest Bull. 32: 18. 2004.
Zehneria capillacea (Schumach.) C. Jeffrey, Kew Bull. 15: 366. 1961 (publ. 1962).
Zehneria clemensiae (Merr. & L.M.Perry) M.D.Dwivedi, A.K.Pandey & H.Schaef., Taxon 67: 62. 2018.
Zehneria cunninghamii F. Muell., Hooker’s J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 8: 50. 1856.
Zehneria elbertii W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes, Blumea 51: 54. 2006.
Zehneria emirnensis (Baker) Keraudren, Adansonia, n.s. 4: 333. 1964.
Zehnerya erythrobacca W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes, Blumea 51: 55. 2006.
Zehneria filipes (Merr. & L.M.Perry) M.D.Dwivedi, A.K.Pandey & H.Schaef., Taxon 67: 62. 2018.
Zehneria gilletii C. Jeffrey, Kew Bull. 15: 366. 1962.
Zehneria grandibracteata G.W. Hu, Neng Wei & Q.F. Wang, Phytokeys 165: 85–98. 2020.
Zehneria grayana (Cogn.) Fosberg & Sachet, Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 47: 12. 1981.
Zehneria guamensis (Merr.) Fosberg, Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 45: 15. 1980.
Zehneria hallii C. Jeffrey, J. W. African Sci. Assoc. 9: 93. 1965.
Zehneria hermaphrodita W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes, Thai Forest Bull. 32: 19. 2004.
Zehneria hookeriana Arn., J. Bot. (Hooker) 3: 275. 1841.
Zehneria idenburgensis (Merr. & L.M.Perry) M.D.Dwivedi, A.K.Pandey & H.Schaef., Taxon 67: 62. 2018.
Zehneria immarginata W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes, Blumea 51: 63. 2006.
Zehneria japonica (Thunb.) H.Y. Liu, Bull. Natl. Mus. Nat. Sci. (Taichung) 1: 40. 1989.
Zehneria keayana R.Fern. & A.Fern., Bol. Soc. Brot. II, 36: 144. 1962.
Zehneria lancifolia (W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes) H.Schaef. & S.S.Renner, Taxon 60: 135. 2011.
Zehneria leucocarpa (Blume) M.D.Dwivedi, A.K.Pandey & H.Schaef., Taxon 67: 62. 2018.
Zehneria longiflora G.W. Hu & Q.F. Wang, Phytotaxa 324 (1): 89. 2017.
Zehneria macrantha (W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes) H.Schaef. & S.S.Renner, Taxon 60: 135. 2011.
Zehneria macrosepala (W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes) H.Schaef. & S.S.Renner, Taxon 60: 135 2011.
Zehneria madagascariensis Keraudren, Adansonia, n.s. 4: 335. 1964.
Zehneria marlothii (Cogn.) A.Fern. & R.Fern., Mem. Junta Invest. Ultramar, 2 Ser. 34: 120 1962.
Zehneria martinez-crovettoi Keraudren, Adansonia, n.s. 4: 335. 1964.
Zehneria maysorensis (Wight & Arn.) Arn., J. Bot. (Hooker) 3: 275. 1841.
Zehneria microsperma Hook.f., Fl. Trop. Afr. 2: 559. 1871.
Zehneria minutiflora (Cogn.) C.Jeffrey, Kew Bull. 15: 366. 1961 (publ. 1962).
Zehneria monocarpa G.W.Hu, Ngumbau & Q.F.Wang, Phytotaxa 443: 259. 2020.
Zehneria mucronata (Blume) Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 1: 656. 1855.
Zehneria neocaledonica W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes, Blumea 51: 67. 2006.
Zehneria nesophila (W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes) H.Schaef. & S.S.Renner, Taxon 60: 135. 2011.
Zehneria odorata (Hook.f. & Thomson ex Benth.) M.D.Dwivedi, A.K.Pandey & H.Schaef., Taxon 67: 62. 2018.
Zehneria oligosperma C.Jeffrey, Kew Bull. 15: 367. 1962.
Zehneria pallidinervia C.Jeffrey, Kew Bull. 15: 368. 1962.
Zehneria palmatiloba Lachenaud & H.Schaef., Phytotaxa 496: 170-178. 2021.
Zehneria parvifolia (Cogn.) J.H.Ross, Bothalia 10: 568. 1972.
Zehneria pedicellata W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes, Blumea 51: 69. 2006.
Zehneria peneyana (Naudin) Schweinf. & Asch., Beitr. Fl. Aethiop. 268. 1867.
Zehneria pentaphylla (Naudin) M.D.Dwivedi, A.K.Pandey & H.Schaef., Taxon 67: 62. 2018.
Zehneria perpusilla (Blume) Bole & M.R.Almeida, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 79: 315. 1982 (publ. 1983).
Zehneria perrieri Keraudren, Adansonia, n.s. 4: 337. 1964.
Zehneria pisifera W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes, Blumea 51: 71. 2006.
Zehneria platysperma (W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes) H.Schaef. & S.S.Renner, Taxon 60: 135. 2011.
Zehneria polycarpa (Cogn.) Keraudren, Adansonia, n.s. 4(2): 333. 1964.
Zehneria racemosa Hook.f., Fl. Trop. Afr. 2: 561. 1871.
Zehneria repanda (Blume) C.M.Simmons, Blumea 45: 240. 2000.
Zehneria ridens Verdc., Kew Bull. 52: 729–732. 1997.
Zehneria rizalensis (W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes) Pelser & H.Schaef., Blumea 66: 97. 2021.
Zehneria rutenbergiana (Cogn.) Keraudren, Adansonia, n.s. 4: 333. 1964.
Zehneria samoensis (A.Gray) Fosberg & Sachet, Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 47: 12. 1981.
Zehneria scaberrima (Merr.) Pelser & H.Schaef., Blumea 66: 97. 2021.
Zehneria scabra Sond., Fl. Cap. 2: 486. 1862.
Zehneria scrobiculata Hochst. ex A.Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 1: 287. 1848.
Zehneria somalensis Thulin, Nordic J. Bot. 16: 297 1996 publ. 1997.
Zehneria sphaerosperma W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes, Thai Forest Bull. 32: 24. 2004.
Zehneria subcoriacea Y.D. Zhou & Q.F. Wang, Phytotaxa 277: 282. 2016.
Zehneria tahitensis W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes, Blumea 51: 76. 2006.
Zehneria tenuispica W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes, Thai Forest Bull. 32: 25. 2004.
Zehneria thwaitesii (Schweinf.) C.Jeffrey, Kew Bull. 15: 371. 1961 (publ. 1962).
Zehneria trichocarpa W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes, Reinwardtia 12: 271. 2008.
Zehneria tridactyla (Hook.f.) R.Fern & A.Fern., Mem. Junta Invest. Ultramar, 2 Ser. 34: 118. 1962.
Zehneria trullifolia W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes, Blumea 51: 77. 2006.
Zehneria tuberifera G.W.Hu & Q.F.Wang, Phytotaxa 411: 216. 2019.
Zehneria viridifolia W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes, Blumea 51: 77. 2006.
Zehneria wallichii (C.B. Clarke) C. Jeffrey, Kew Bull. 34: 802. 1980.

Literature

De Wilde, W. J. J. O. and B. E. E. Duyfjes. 2006. Redefinition of Zehneria and four new related genera (Cucurbitaceae), with an enumeration of the Australasian and Pacific species. Blumea 51: 1-88.

Dwivedi, M.D., Barfield, S., Pandey, A.K. & Schaefer, H. 2018. Phylogeny of Zehneria (Cucurbitaceae) with special focus on Asia. Taxon 67: 55-65

Khunwasi, C. 1998. Palynology of the Cucurbitaceae. Doctoral Dissertation Naturwiss. Fak., University of Innsbruck.

Simmons, C. M., and W. J. J. O. de Wilde. 2000 Zehneria subgenus Zehneria (Cucurbitaceae) in Java and Bali. Blumea 45: 235-243.

Thulin, M. 1996. A new species of Zehneria (Cucurbitaceae) from Somalia. Nordic J. Bot. 16: 297-299.

Van der Ham, R. W. J. M. and K. Pruesapan. 2006. Pollen morphology of Zehneria s. l. (Cucurbitaceae). Grana 45: 241-248.

Verdcourt, B. 1997 A new species of Zehneria Endl. (Cucurbitaceae) from Tanzania. Kew Bull. 52: 729-732.