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Cayaponia | Cucurbitaceae

Cayaponia.

Cayaponia Silva Manso
Cayaponia Silva Manso, Enum. Subst. Braz. 31. 1836, nom. cons.
Type: Cayaponia diffusa Silva Manso, Enum. Subst. Braz. 32. 1836 (conserved type).
Perianthopodus Silva Manso, Enum. Subst. Braz. 28. 1836.
Dermophylla Silva Manso, Enum. Subst. Braz. 30. 1836.
Alternasemina Silva Manso, Enum. Subst. Braz. 35. 1836.
Arkezostis Raf., New Fl. 4: 100. 1836 [1838].
Bryonia subgen. Trianosperma Torr. & A. Gray Fl. N. Amer. 1: 540. 1840.
Trianosperma (Torr. & A. Gray) Mart., Syst. Mater. Med. Veg. Bras. 79. 1843.
Allagosperma M. Roem., Fam. Nat. Syn. Monogr. 2: 15, 68. 1846.
Cionandra Griseb., Fl. Brit. W. Indian Isl. 286. 1860.
Antagonia Griseb., Abh. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen 19: 96. 1874.
Selysia Cogn., Monogr. Phan. 3: 735-736. 1881.

Much-branched climbers or creepers with up to 20 m long, herbaceous or suffrutescent shoots, perennial roots, and monoecious or dioecious sex system. The leaves are simple, palmately 3-7-lobed, less often 3-5-foliolate or entire, the blade often decurrent on the petiole, often with disc-shaped glands at the base. The tendrils are 2-7-fid (rarely simple – C. espelina), sometimes with apical adhesive pads. The flowers are small, in racemes, panicles, pairs or solitary, male and female often coaxial, opening at night. The receptacle-tube is shortly campanulate to cylindrical with five sepals. The five petals are yellow, white or light green in color. The three stamens are inserted near the base of the tube on free filaments. Two anthers are bithecous, one monothecous, usually coherent in a head with duplicate or triplicate thecae, containing 3-6-porate to 4-10-pantoporate, echinate, large to very large pollen (polar axis 61-208 µm, equatorial axis 68-196 µm, (Khunwasi 1998, Barth et al. 2005)). The ovary is globose, ovoid or oblong with 1-3 placentae and 2-30 ascending ovules. The style is erect, linear, inserted on a basal nectary with three dilated, reflexed, strongly papillose or smooth stigmata. The fruits are small, dry, indehiscent, smooth, with a firm, thin wall, ripening green, red, brown or black, often with very bitter taste. The 1-30 seeds are embedded in loose cellular pulp, compressed, erect, irregularly ovate or oblong, triangular or dagger-shaped, truncate and apically tricornute. The testa is brown, rigid and smooth, woody, without a distinct margin.

About 75 species, which grow along forest margins, in clearings, in and riverine forest mainly in tropical South America, a few in Central America, Mexico and the Southern US, one species endemic in Fernando de Noronha Island, one species, C. africana in West and Central Africa and in Madagascar; one species, C. martiana, introduced to Indonesia (Java).

Cayaponia (incl. Selysia) is the largest genus in the tribe Cucurbiteae and is sister lineage to the monotypic Abobra and both are phylogenetically close to the morphologically similar Cionosicys (Schaefer et al. 2009; Schaefer & Renner 2011). The genus was named after the Kayapó tribe of Brazil.

Accepted species

Cayaponia africana (Hook.f.) Exell, Cat. Vasc. Pl. S. Tome 186. 1944.
Cayaponia alarici M.L. Porto, Bol. Soc. Argent. Bot. 16: 112. 1974.
Cayaponia amazonica (Poepp. & Endl.) Cogn., Monogr. Phan. 3: 797. 1881.
Cayaponia americana (Lam.) Cogn., Monogr. Phan. 3: 787. 1881.
Cayaponia angustiloba (Cogn.) Cogn., Monogr. Phan. 3: 771. 1881.
Cayaponia attenuata (Hook. & Arn.) Cogn., Monogr. Phan. 3: 769. 1881.
Cayaponia austin-smithii Standl., Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 18: 1387. 1938.
Cayaponia bidentata (R.J. Hampshire) P. Duchen & S.S. Renner, Amer. J. Bot. 97: 1136. 2010.
Cayaponia biflora Cogn. ex Harms, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 22: 339. 1926.
Cayaponia boliviensis Cogn., Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 3(3): 39. 1893.
Cayaponia bonariensis (Mill.) Mart.Crov., Notul. Syst. (Paris) 15: 48, 53. 1955.
Cayaponia botryocarpa C. Jeffrey, Kew Bull. 25: 215. 1971.
Cayaponia buraeavii Cogn., Monogr. Phan. 3: 790. 1881.
Cayaponia cabocla (Vell.) Mart., Syst. Mat. Med. Bras. 81. 1842.
Cayaponia capitata Cogn. ex Harms, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 22: 340. 1926.
Cayaponia caulobotrys C. Jeffrey, Kew Bull. 25: 219. 1971.
Cayaponia citrullifolia (Griseb.) Cogn. ex Griseb., Abh. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen 24: 135. 1879.
Cayaponia cogniauxiana Gomes-Klein, Brittonia 57: 108. 2005.
Cayaponia cordata (Cogn.) P. Duchen & S.S. Renner, Amer. J. Bot. 97: 1136. 2010.
Cayaponia coriacea Cogn., Fl. Bras. 6(4): 79. 1878.
Cayaponia cruegeri (Naudin) Cogn., Monogr. Phan. 3: 778. 1881.
Cayaponia denticulata Killip ex C. Jeffrey, Kew Bull. 25: 206. 1971.
Cayaponia diversifolia (Cogn.) Cogn., Monogr. Phan. 3: 787. 1881.
Cayaponia domingensis (Cogn.) H. Schaef. & M. Nee, Phytokeys 18: 50. 2012.
Cayaponia duckei Harms, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 22: 339. 1926.
Cayaponia espelina (Silva Manso) Cogn., Monogr. Phan. 3: 792. 1881.
Cayaponia ferruginea Gomes-Klein, Brittonia 57: 110. 2005.
Cayaponia floribunda Cogn., Monogr. Phan. 3: 779. 1881.
Cayaponia fluminensis (Vell.) Cogn., Fl. Bras. 6(4): 76. 1878.
Cayaponia glandulosa (Mart.) Cogn., Monogr. Phan. 3: 755. 1881.
Cayaponia gracillima (Cogn.) Cogn., Monogr. Phan. 3: 784. 1881.
Cayaponia granatensis Cogn., Monogr. Phan. 3: 794. 1881.
Cayaponia guianensis C. Jeffrey, Kew Bull. 33: 363. 1978.
Cayaponia hammelii Grayum, Novon 19: 465. 2009.
Cayaponia jenmanii C. Jeffrey, Kew Bull. 25: 211. 1971.
Cayaponia kathematophora R.E. Schult., Bot. Mus. Leafl. 20: 339. 1964.
Cayaponia laciniosa (L.) C. Jeffrey, Kew Bull. 15: 346. 1962.
Cayaponia laxa Cogn. ex Harms, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 22: 341. 1926.
Cayaponia leucosticta Standl., Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. 18: 1388. 1938.
Cayaponia longifolia Cogn., Monogr. Phan. 3: 796. 1881.
Cayaponia longiloba A.K. Monro, Novon 6: 82. 1996.
Cayaponia macrocalyx Harms, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9: 994. 1926.
Cayaponia martiana (Cogn.) Cogn., Monogr. Phan. 3: 777. 1881.
Cayaponia membranacea Gomes-Klein, Sellowia 53-55: 15. 2003.
Cayaponia metensis Cuatrec., Caldasia 1(5): 27. 1942.
Cayaponia micrantha Cogn., Bull. Acad. Roy. Sci. Belgique II, 49: 196. 1880.
Cayaponia nitida Gomes-Klein & Pirani, Brittonia 57: 113. 2005.
Cayaponia noronhae C. Jeffrey, Kew Bull. 25: 226. 1971.
Cayaponia ophthalmica R.E. Schult., Bot. Mus. Leafl. 20: 321. 1964.
Cayaponia oppositifolia Harms, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9: 994. 1926.
Cayaponia ovata Cogn., Monogr. Phan. 3: 754. 1881.
Cayaponia palmata Cogn., Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belgique 17: 295. 1878.
Cayaponia pedata Cogn., Fl. Bras. 6(4): 80. 1878.
Cayaponia peruviana (Poepp. & Endl.) Cogn., Monogr. Phan. 3: 795. 1881.
Cayaponia petiolulata Cogn., Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belgique 17: 295. 1878.
Cayaponia pilosa (Vell.) Cogn., Fl. Bras. 6(4): 75. 1878.
Cayaponia podantha Cogn., Monogr. Phan. 3: 753. 1881.
Cayaponia quinqueloba (Raf.) Shinners, Field & Lab. 25: 32. 1957.
Cayaponia racemosa (Mill.) Cogn., Monogr. Phan. 3: 768. 1881.
Cayaponia rigida (Cogn.) Cogn., Monogr. Phan. 3: 790. 1881.
Cayaponia rugosa Gomes-Klein & Pirani, Brittonia 57: 115. 2005.
Cayaponia ruizii Cogn., Monogr. Phan. 3: 794. 1881.
Cayaponia selysioides C. Jeffrey, Kew Bull. 25: 207. 1971.
Cayaponia sessiliflora Wunderlin, Phytologia 38: 220. 1978.
Cayaponia setulosa (Cogn.) Cogn., Monogr. Phan. 3: 767. 1881.
Cayaponia simplicifolia (Naudin) Cogn., Monogr. Phan. 3: 774. 1881.
Cayaponia tayuya (Vell.) Cogn., Monogr. Phan. 3: 772. 1881.
Cayaponia ternata (Vell.) Cogn., Fl. Bras. 6(4): 79. 1878.
Cayaponia tessmannii Harms, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 9: 995. 1926.
Cayaponia triangularis (Cogn.) Cogn., Monogr. Phan. 3: 774. 1881.
Cayaponia trifoliolata (Cogn.) Cogn., Monogr. Phan. 3: 789. 1881.
Cayaponia trilobata Cogn., Monogr. Phan. 3: 780. 1881.
Cayaponia tubulosa 
Cogn., Fl. Bras. 6(4): 78. 1878.
Cayaponia ulei Cogn. ex Harms, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 22: 342. 1926.
Cayaponia villosissima Cogn., Fl. Bras. 6(4): 81. 1878.
Cayaponia weddellii (Naudin) Cogn., Monogr. Phan. 3: 793. 1881.

Literature

Barth, O.M., Pinto da Luz, C.F. and V.L. Gomes-Klein. 2005. Pollen morphology of Brazilian species of Cayaponia Silva Manso (Cucurbitaceae, Cucurbiteae). Grana 44: 129-136.

Duchen, P. and S.S. Renner. 2010. The evolution of Cayaponia (Cucurbitaceae): Repeated shifts from bat to bee pollination and long-distance dispersal to Africa 2-5 million years ago. American Journal of Botany 97: 1129-1141.

Khunwasi, C. 1998. Palynology of the Cucurbitaceae. Doctoral Dissertation Naturwiss. Fak., University of Innsbruck.

Jeffrey, C. 1971. Further notes on Cucurbitaceae: II. Kew Bull. 25: 191-236.

Schaefer, H. and M.H. Nee. 2012. Melothria domingensis (Cucurbitaceae), an endangered Caribbean endemic, is a Cayaponia. Phytokeys 18: 45-60.

Schaefer, H. and S.S. Renner. 2011. Phylogenetic relationships in the order Cucurbitales and a new classification of the gourd family (Cucurbitaceae). Taxon 60: 122-138.

Schaefer, H., Heibl, C., and S.S. Renner. 2009. Gourds afloat: a dated phylogeny reveals an Asian origin of the gourd family (Cucurbitaceae) and numerous oversea dispersal events. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 276: 843-851.