Diplocyclos (Endl.) Post & Kuntze
Diplocyclos (Endl.) Post & Kuntze, Lex. 178 (‚Diplocyclus‘). 1903 (‚1904‘).
Bryonia sect. Diplocyclos Endl. Prodr. Fl. Norfolk. 68. 1833.
Type: Bryonia affinis Endl., F.L. Bauer s.n. (W), Norfolk.
Bryonopsis (Blume) Hassk., Cat. Hort. Bogor. 188. 1844.
Ilocania Merr., Philip. J. Sci., C 13: 65. 1918.
Monoecious, herbaceous climbers, which can grow to 6 m long. The leaves are simple, petiolate, broadly ovate, and palmately 5-lobed. The tendrils are bifid. At the base of the petiole exists a small, c. 3 mm long probract with nectaries. The flowers are small, fasciculate, usually male and female together in the axils. The receptacle-tube and corolla are broadly campanulate. The 5 sepals are triangular-dentiform, to 2 mm long, the 5 petals are ovate and white to greenish-yellow in colour. The 3 stamens are inserted near the mouth of the tube on short, free filaments. Two of the anthers are bithecous, one monothecous with triplicate thecae. The pollen is medium-sized to large (polar axis 57-107 µm, equatorial axis 63-104 µm), tri(col)porate, echinate and reticuloid (Khunwasi 1998). The ovary is globose or ovate with 3 placentae and few, horizontal ovules. The style is slender with 3 bilobed stigmas. The fruits occur solitary or in clusters of 2-5. They are baccate, globose or ovoid and ripen bright red with silvery white stripes or marks. The seeds are up to 6 mm long with slightly scorbiculate testa. Germination is epigeous (Zimmermann 1922). Chromosome number n = 12 in D. palmatus (L.) C. Jeffrey (Beevy and Kuriachan 1996).
The genus comprises five species in tropical and subtropical Africa, Asia, Australia, where they grow in rainforest clearings and along forest margins, and in secondary growth. Diplocyclos is sister lineage to Coccinia, so far, no genus-wide phylogeny is available.
Diplocyclos decipiens (Hook.f.) C.Jeffrey, Kew Bull. 15: 351. 1962.
Diplocyclos leiocarpus (Gilg) C.Jeffrey, Kew Bull. 15: 351. 1962.
Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C.Jeffrey, Kew Bull. 15: 352. 1962.
Diplocyclos schliebenii (Harms) C.Jeffrey, Kew Bull. 15: 352. 1962.
Diplocyclos tenuis C.Jeffrey, Kew Bull. 15: 352. 1962.
Beevy, S.S., Kuriachan, P. 1996. Chromosome numbers of South Indian Cucurbitaceae and a note on the cytological evolution in the family. J. Cytol. Genet. 31: 65–71.
Khunwasi, C. 1998. Palynology of the Cucurbitaceae. Doctoral Dissertation Naturwiss. Fak., University of Innsbruck.
Zimmermann, A. 1922. Die Cucurbitaceen. Vol. 1-2. Fischer, Jena.